In accounts of foreign-language listening and reading, perceptual information is often described as ‘bottom-up’, while information provided by context is said to be ‘top-down‘. … At the ‘top’ is the overall meaning of the utterance, into which new information is integrated as it emerges.
Learners can be encouraged to use both bottom-up and top-down strategies to help them understand a text. For example in a reading comprehension learners use their knowledge of the genre to predict what will be in the text (top down), and their understanding of affixation to guess meaning (bottom up).
Definition. Bottom-up learning refers to learning implicit knowledge first and then learning explicit knowledge on that basis (i.e., through “extracting” implicit knowledge).
Top down listening happens when we use background knowledge to make sense of what we are listening to. … Bottom up listening, on the other hand, happens when we understand language sound by sound or word by word, with less use of background knowledge.
Bottom-up processing begins with the retrieval of sensory information from our external environment to build perceptions based on the current input of sensory information. Top-down processing is the interpretation of incoming information based on prior knowledge, experiences, and expectations.
Reading activities in the bottom-up theory include students learning to read from the bottom (foundation) up to concepts like phonics and phonemic awareness. This means that children are first taught the basics to build a solid foundation and are then advanced to learning vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.
Bottom-up listening activities can help learners to understand enough linguistic elements of what they hear to then be able to use their top-down skills to fill in the gaps.
A bottom-up reading model is a reading model that emphasizes the written or printed text, it says that reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (or, in other words, reading is driven by text) and that reading proceeds from part to whole.